A crane is a mechanism which is commonly used to elevate goods or materials, and is therefore referred to as a lifting mechanism usually equipped with chains or wire ropes, a winder (also called a wire rope drum), and sheaves. A crane is used to carry materials both vertically and horizontally. One or more simple machines are utilized by the crane for creating mechanical advantage and thus, loads which are over the individual capacity or capability will be moved without any problem. The vehicle industries use cranes to load and unload freight; the construction industries use cranes to move materials from one place to a different, and the manufacturing industries use cranes to build heavy equipment.
Cranes are intended keeping in mind two important considerations:
- The crane should be able to carry a load of a specified weight.
- The crane ought to remain stable and not fall over when the load is transported to a different location.
Cranes, follow the principle of conservation of energy.Cranes accomplish the task of lifting loads by imparting force from one point to another to create mechanical benefit. The crane does so by using simple machines. Most common simple machines include the lever, the pulley, the pneumatic cylinder and the hydraulic cylinder.
Cranes exist in an enormous variety of forms – each tailored to a specific use. Sometimes sizes range from the smallest jib cranes, used inside workshops, to the tallest tower cranes, used for constructing high buildings. Mini-cranes are also used for constructing high buildings, in order to facilitate constructions by reaching tight spaces. Finally, we can find larger floating cranes, generally used to build oil rigs and salvage sunken ships.
An air compressor is a device that converts power (usually from an electric motor, a diesel engine or a gasoline engine) into potential energy by forcing air into a smaller volume and thus increasing its pressure. The energy in the compressed air can be stored while the air remains pressurized. The energy can be used for a variety of applications, usually by utilizing the kinetic energy of the air as it is depressurized.
Solenoid Control Valve
A solenoid valve is an electromechanically operated valve. The valve is controlled by an electric current through a solenoid: in the case of a two-port valve the flow is switched on or off; in the case of a three-port valve, the outflow is switched between the two outlet ports. Multiple solenoid valves can be placed together on a manifold.
Solenoid valves are the most frequently used control elements in fluidics. Their tasks are to shut off, release, dose, distribute or mix fluids. They are found in many application areas. Solenoids offer fast and safe switching, high reliability, long service life, good medium compatibility of the materials used, low control power and compact design.
Pneumatic cylinders (sometimes known as air cylinders) are mechanical devices which use the power of compressed gas to produce a force in a reciprocating linear motion.Like hydraulic cylinders, something forces a piston to move in the desired direction. The piston is a disc or cylinder, and the piston rod transfers the force it develops to the object to be moved.
Engineers sometimes prefer to use pneumatics because they are quieter, cleaner, and do not require large amounts of space for fluid storage.
Because the operating fluid is a gas, leakage from a pneumatic cylinder will not drip out and contaminate the surroundings, making pneumatics more desirable where cleanliness is a requirement. For example, in the mechanical puppets of the Disney Tiki Room, pneumatics are used to prevent fluid from dripping onto people below the puppets.
Principle: Once actuated, compressed air enters into the tube at one end of the piston and, hence, imparts force on the piston. Consequently, the piston becomes displaced (moved) by the compressed air expanding in an attempt to reach atmospheric pressure.
An electric battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells that convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy. Each cell contains a positive terminal, or cathode, and a negative terminal, or anode. Electrolytes allow ions to move between the electrodes and terminals, which allows current to flow out of the battery to perform work.
Primary (single-use or "disposable") batteries are used once and discarded; the electrode materials are irreversibly changed during discharge. Common examples are the alkaline battery used for flashlights and a multitude of portable devices. Secondary(rechargeable batteries) can be discharged and recharged multiple times; the original composition of the electrodes can be restored by reverse current. Examples include the lead-acid batteries used in vehicles and lithium ion batteries used for portable electronics.
SPECIFICATIONS OF THE COMPONENTS USED
UMESH CHANDRA JOSHI