Concept of programming


  • Problem solving: In order to solve any problem we follow systematic approach following are various step involved in solving problem.
  • Specify The Problem: In this part problem is completely analyzed, analyzing the problem means identifying the I/P data the O/P expected on that I/P data and any other constrains.
  • Design The Algorithm: In this particular step, we design the algorithm (step for solving problem). Writing the algorithm is most challenging part of problem solving.
  • Implementing The Algorithm: In this phase, we implement algorithm using any programming language. Each step of algorithm is converting into statement or line in programming language.
  • Testing & Verification: Its means to evaluate whether the program is give desired O/P.
  • Algorithm: An algorithm is well define set of explicit and unambiguous steps, which takes some values as I/P and reduce some values as O/P.



  • An algorithm as following important characteristics:-
  • Input:- very algorithm must have precise input values.
  • Output :- It should produces correct output for ever valid input.
  • Finiteness:- Every algorithm must terminate after sixth no. of step.
  • Definiteness:- Every step of algorithm must be clearly define without any ambiguity.
  •  Effectiveness:- All the operation performed in algorithm must be basic so that they can be implement easily in finite length of time.



  • Terminal:- It symbol denote begins & End or pause in a program logic flow. It is first and last symbol of flow chart.
    terminal in flow chart

  • I/P and O/P :- This symbol is used denote any i/p and o/p function in the algorithm.
    Input and output in flow chart

  • Processing:- A represent arithmetic and data movement instruction. Hence, all arithmetic process of adding, subtracting, multiplying, dividing is denoted by the symbol.
    processing in flow chart

  • Decision:- The decision symbol is used to check condition on the basic of the o/p of the condition one of the alternative part is followed.
    decision in flow chart

  • Flow Line:- Flow line with arrow head indicate the flow of operation the order in which the instruction is to be executed.
    flow lines in flow chart

  • Connection Or Connector:- It is use to connect flow chart across multiple pages. Flow chat is complex and difficult.
    connectors in flow chart




  • Communication:- Flow chart are better way to communicate the logic of a computer of all the concerned.
  • Effective Analysis:- With the help of flow charts problem can be analysis in more efficient way.
  • Proper Documentation:- Flow charts serves as good documentation for program, which are require or various purpose.
  • Efficient Coding:-  With the help of flow chart we can convert a problem into a program to vary accurate and efficiently.
  • Proper Debugging:- Proper debugging means process of finding error it is easy to detect and correct error in the logic of the program using flow chart.



  • Complex logic:- It is difficult to describe complex logic using flow chart so there are useless.
  • Alteration and Modification:- It is difficult alter and modification complex flow chart because it is time assuming and requires redrawing completely
  • Reproduction:- Reproduction of flow chart is difficult because it cannot be type on computer.



  • Flow Chart:-
    1)It is pictorial representation of algorithm
    2) Flow chart cannot used for complex logic.
    3) Flow chart are difficult to change and modify
    4) Flow chart help in proper documentation
    5) Flow chart do not have any basic characteristics it as symbol.


  • Algorithm:-
    1) Algorithm is step by step solving of proper
    2) algorithm used easy for changing and modification.
    3) algorithm are not used for documentation.
    4) Algorithm must have basic characteristics it do not have any symbol.


Programming Techniques:- Every programmer his own programming languages to create a program. Each programming languages has a specific style depending upon languages begin uses to by the program. The types of programming techniques depend upon the languages platform & the type of problem begin solved by the programming.

These are the following programming technique which are used by the programmer

  • Unstructured/Monolithic programming technique:- It is used when global data and sequential code are used for writing program. It is used jump statement to transfer control in the program it is general.
  • Procedural programming language:- In procedural programming language program is organized using subroutine and all the data is global it uses go to statement to maintain control flow and subroutine are called to complete any task. It is useful for small projects.
  • Modular Programming Technique:- In this technique program is divided into small modules. Each modules perform specific tasks. All the modules are merged together to complete project.
  • Object Oriented Technique:- In this technique data and class are bended together only those function which are inside the class are allow to excess data it is mode secure for data its allow reusability code. It uses the concept of polymorphism data abstraction and inherence it is more suitable for large complex project.





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